The first Donaueschingen Festival took place in the summer of 1921 in the small town of Donaueschingen, Germany. This festival originated as a workshop to help promote new composers but eventually grew into an internationally renowned event for new music. In 1922, Paul Hindemith was recognized as a “first-rate” contemporary and became a vital member of the organizing committee.[1] From 1922-1926, Hindemith and Joseph Haas helped shape the selection process for the festival. In 1924, Hindemith played a crucial role in shifting the focus of the festival towards music that had previously been overlooked. The 1925 festival featured “a cappella” music, and the 1926 event featured music for military bands.[2] Four composers, namely Ernst Krenek, Ernst Pepping, Ernst Toch, and Paul Hindemith, presented new works for the military band at the 1926 Donaueschingen Festival[3]

Edwin Franko Goldman founded the American Bandmasters Association in 1929, with the hope of creating an association for the best band directors in the country to work together to raise the standards for bands in America.[4] The charter members of the ABA included: Edwin Franko Goldman, Charles Benter, J. J. Gagnier, Victor J. Grabel, Albert Austin Harding, Richard B. Hayward, Charles O’Neill, Arthur Pryor, and Frank Simo.[5] They held their first meeting on July 5, 1929, in New York and the first annual ABA convention on March 13-16, 1930, in Middletown, Ohio.[6] In an effort to encourage composers to write new works for bands, the ABA created the Ostwald Competition in 1956, which was first awarded to Clifton Williams.[7]

1918 – L’Histoire du Soldat Igor Stravinsky

Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) was born in Lomonosov, Russia, and considered his nationality to include Russia, France, and the United States. He began studying composition with Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov in 1903 after meeting his son, Vladimir Rimsky-Korsakov, at school the year prior. Stravinsky studied with Rimsky-Korsakov until 1908. When World War I broke out in 1914, he was in Switzerland with his wife and children, and they made a home near Lake Geneva. In 1920 he moved his family to France and obtained French citizenship in 1934. Stravinsky remained there until sailing to the United States of America just three weeks after the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Upon arrival in the United States, Stravinsky gave six lectures at Harvard. He was granted U.S. citizenship in 1945 and lived the rest of his life in the States.[8]

His oeuvre is typically divided into three periods: Russian (1907-1919), Neoclassical (1920-1954), and Serial (1954-1968). Stravinsky composed over 100 pieces of music, and some of his best-known ballets includeThe Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911, rev. 1946), The Rite of Spring (1913, rev. 1943), and Pulcinella (1920). Important works for winds include: L’Histoire du Soldat (1918),Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920, rev. 1947), Octet (1923), Symphony of Psalms (1930, rev. 1948), and Ebony Concerto (1945).[9]

L’Histoire du Soldat, or The Soldier’s Tale premiered in 1918, during Stravinsky’s time living in Switzerland. The piece is scored for bassoon, Bb clarinet, Bb trumpet, trombone, string bass, percussion, and violin, and features three speaking parts and a dancer. The libretto was written by C.F. Ramuz, whom Stravinsky met in 1915, and the story is based on tales by Russian author Alexander Afanasyev. In one of Afanasyey’s original stories, a soldier tricks the devil into drinking too much vodka. Another story tells the tale of a soldier who deserts his company and the devil comes to claim his soul.[10]

The Soldier’s Tale is meant to be performed in two parts and depicts the tale of a soldier who makes a deal with the devil. The soldier exchanges his violin for a book that predicts the future and accepts an invitation to stay with the devil for three days. Upon arriving home, the soldier realizes he was gone for three years, not three days. After the soldier accumulates some wealth, he tries to repurchase his violin from the devil, but finds he can no longer play it. After losing his wealth, the soldier attempts a journey to save a princess who has fallen ill. On his way to the castle, he meets the devil again and proceeds to lose at cards until the devil falls asleep. He recovers the violin and goes to play for the princess. When she hears the soldier playing, she wakes up and begins to dance. The devil tries to interfere, but to no avail, and warns the soldier that if he ever leaves the castle, his soul will be forfeited to the devil. As time passes, the soldier and princess decide to visit his old village, but the devil comes to claim him as soon as he starts on his way.[11]

1920/1947 – Symphonies of Wind Instruments Igor Stravinsky 

Stravinsky’s Symphonies of Wind Instruments was dedicated to the memory of his friend, Claude Achille Debussy. December 1920, the last 51 measures of the piece were published as a piano version titled ‘Fragment des

Symphonies pour instruments à vent à la mémoire de Claude Achille Debussy’ in a supplement of La Revue Musicale. The supplement was titled ‘Tombeau de Claude Debussy,’ and Stravinsky’s piece was one of ten compositions meant to honor Debussy. Although the title includes “symphonies,” Stravinsky’s composition is not a symphony but refers to the original meaning of the word, “sounding together.”[12] Stravinsky revised the piece in 1947, removing some of the more obscure instruments like the basset horn and alto flute, as well as making some changes in note values.[13]

1923/1952 – Octet Igor Stravinsky

Stravinsky’s Octet for wind instruments premiered in Paris, on May 20, 1923, and was conducted by the composer. The Octet is scored for flute, Bb clarinet, two bassoons, trumpet in C, trumpet in A, tenor trombone, and bass trombone. There are two different accounts of the genesis of the piece, which contain some discrepancies. In one account, Stravinsky mentions that he began to write the Octet with no instrumentation in mind and only decided on the voices after completing the first section. In another account, he describes the piece’s origin as a dream:

The Octour began with a dream, in which I saw myself in a small room surrounded by a small group of instrumentalists playing some attractive music. I did not recognize the music, though I strained to hear it, and I could not recall any feature the next day, but I do remember my curiosity in the dream to know how many musicians were. I remember, too, that after I had counted them to the number eight, I looked again and say that they were playing bassoons, trombones, trumpets, a flute, and a clarinet. I awoke from this little concert in a state of great delight and anticipation and the next morning began to compose the Octuor, which I had no thought of the day before, though for some time I had wanted to write an ensemble piece, not incidental music like the Histoire du Soldat, but an instrumental sonata.[14]

The movements of the Octet include:

    1. Sinfonia
    2. Tema con Variazioni
    3. Finale

According to Stravinsky, he wrote movement 1 first and then the waltz section of movement 2.[15] He revised the Octet in 1952 with minimal changes, including a tempo change and correcting misprints in the score.[16]

1923 – Octandre Edgard Varèse

Edgard Varèse (1883-1965) began his music studies in 1900, despite his father’s wishes. Prior to 1900, Henri Varèse directed his son to study mathematics and engineering so that he could eventually take over the family business. Varèse studied at the Schola Cantorum in 1903 and the Paris Conservatoire in 1905. He moved to Berlin in 1907, but returned to Paris in 1913. Unfortunately, after leaving Berlin, most of his manuscripts were destroyed in a warehouse fire. In 1915 he left for New York, where he would eventually compose

Hyperprism (1923), Octandre (1923), and Intégrales (1925).[17]

Octandre was written in 1923 and premiered on January 13, 1924, at the International Composer’s Guild in New York. The piece is written in three movements and is scored for flute/piccolo, Bb clarinet/Eb clarinet, oboe, bassoon, horn in F, trumpet in C, trombone, and string bass. The piece is just under seven minutes in length, and the movements include:

    1. Assez lent
    2. Tres vif et nerveux
    3. Grave-Anime et jubilatoire

The first movement opens with minor second and major seventh intervals in the oboe and clarinet. The second movement utilizes a repetitive rhythmic motive in the piccolo and brass, and the third movement ends with a fugue.[18]

1923 – La création du monde Darius Milhaud 

French composer Darius Milhaud (1892-1974) was associated with avant-garde in the 1920s and was considered a pioneer for using percussion and polytonality in his music. He began playing piano at age three and playing violin at seven. Milhaud studied at the Paris Conservatoire from 1909-1915. He could not fight in World War I due to medical issues and eventually went to Brazil in 1917, where he translated coded messages. He returned to Paris in 1919 and began a series of even more travels that included London, Vienna, the United States, and Russia. With the start of World War II in 1939 and the fall of France to Germany in 1940, Milhaud emigrated to the USA to avoid being arrested by the Germans for being on their wanted list of prominent Jewish composers. After arriving in the USA, he began teaching at Mills College and taught summers in Aspen. He returned to Paris as a professor of composition at the Conservatoire in 1947 and spent the latter part of his life in both countries.[19]

After hearing jazz music on a trip to New York, Milhaud became determined to incorporate jazz elements into chamber music and was given the chance when Rolf de Maré commissioned a new work for his Ballets Suédois. Milhaud collaborated with artist Fernand Léger and author Blaise Cendrars to create La création du monde, using African myths from Cendrars’ recently published collection called Anthologie Nègre to depict the world’s creation. The piece premiered at the Théâtre des Champs Elysées on October 25, 1923, performed by the Ballets Suédois.[20] Roughly 15 minutes in length, the movements include:

    1. The Chaos before Creation
    2. The Birth of Planets and Animals
    3. The Birth of Man and Woman
    4. The Desire
    5. Spring of Healing

Instrumentation includes two flutes, an oboe, a bassoon, two Bb clarinets, an alto saxophone, two trumpets, a horn in F, a trombone, a piano, two violins, cello, two bass, and percussion. Suite Française (1944) is another important work for band by Milhaud.

1923 – English Folk Song SuiteRalph Vaughan Williams  

Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) was one of the founders of the Nationalist movement in English music and a lover of folk music. In 1883, Vaughan Williams began learning violin and eventually switched to viola. He began studying at the Royal College of Music in London in 1890, but left in 1892 to study history and composition at Trinity College, Cambridge. After graduating with degrees in composition and history, he returned to the Royal College of Music, where he met his lifelong friend, Gustav Holst. He completed a doctorate of music in 1901, and began collecting folk songs in 1903. After marrying Adeline Fisher in 1907, he traveled to Paris, where he studied with Maurice Ravel in 1908. During the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he volunteered with the Royal Medical Corps and served as an officer in the Royal Garrison Artillery in 1917. From 1918-1919 he served as music director for the British Expeditionary Force until the War ended. Following the Great War, he taught composition at the Royal College of Music until 1939.[21] Vaughan Williams composed three pieces for the band: English Folk Song Suite (1923), Sea Songs (1923), and Tocatta Marziale (1924).

The English Folk Song Suite was written in 1923, and uses nine English folk songs as thematic material. The three movements are titled:

    1. March – Seventeen Come Sunday
    2. Intermezzo – My Bonny Boy
    3. March – Folk Song from Somerset

English Folk Song Suite initially incorporated Sea Songs as the second of four movements, but Boosey & Hawkes removed it and labeled it as a separate, stand-alone publication.[22] The first movement contains the folk songs “I’m Seventeen Come Sunday,” “Pretty Caroline,” and “Dives and Lazarus.” The second movement uses “My Bonny Boy” and “Green Bushes.” Finally, the third movement incorporates “Blow Away the Morning Dew,” “High Germany,” “The Trees They Do Grow High,” and “John Barleycorn.”[23]


1925 – Kammerkonzert für Klavier und Geige mit 13 Bläsern (Chamber Concerto for Piano and Violin with 13 Wind Instruments) Alban Berg 

The Second Viennese School, a group of composers that introduced serialism and atonality to Western music, consisted of Arnold Schoenberg and his students Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Berg (1885-1935) had a difficult time in school during his early life and had to repeat both the sixth and seventh grades before being able to pass the necessary exams to proceed. He had been taught piano by his governess and had begun composing a little, but lacked the qualifications to enter a conservatory after leaving grade school, so he took an unpaid post as a trainee civil servant. In 1904 his siblings responded to a newspaper advertisement, and he began studying privately with Schoenberg. From 1904 to 1911, Schoenberg taught Berg harmony, counterpoint, music theory, and composition. On May 5, 1914, Berg saw the play Wozzeck and decided to turn it into an opera. He immediately began sketches for the opera, but had to pause his writings from 1915-1918 after being called to fight with the Austrian army in World War I. Wozzeck premiered in Berlin on December 14, 1925, and was quite successful, providing Berg with recognition as a composer and financial security that allowed him to devote his time to composition.[24]

Berg’s Chamber Concerto for Piano and Violin with 13 Wind Instruments, often called Kammerkonzert, was written as a gift for Arnold Schoenberg’s 50th birthday. Kammerkonzert and the Lyrische Suite for string quartet were the first pieces that Berg began using the 12-tone system. Kammerkonzert incorporates a wind ensemble of piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, bassoon, contrabassoon, Eb clarinet, Bb clarinet, bass clarinet, trumpet, two horns in F, and trombone, and is written in three movements:

    1. Thema Scherzoso con Variazioni
    2. Adagio
    3. Rondo Ritmico con Introduzione

The piece is programmatic, and Berg opens the first movement with a theme built upon the names of the Second Viennese School. Using German notation, ArnolD SCHönBErG translates to A-D-Eb-C-B-Bb-E-G, Anton wEBErn becomes A-E-Bb-E, and AlBAn BErG is A-Bb-A-Bb-E-G. The number three (representing the three members of the school) was a factor in the length of the piece, the number of instruments, and even metronome markings.[25]

1926 – Konzertmusik fur Blasorchester, Opus 41 Paul Hindemith

Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) is considered the foremost German composer of his generation and had an incredible career as a composer, theorist, and conductor. Hindemith began studying violin at a young age and entered the Hoch Conservatory at the age of 14. While at Hoch, he studied violin with Adolf Rebner and composition with Arnold Mendelssohn (great-nephew of Felix Mendelssohn) and Bernard Sekles. He joined the Frankfurt Opera Orchestra in 1914 as a first violinist but stopped playing in 1923, preferring to switch to viola. Hindemith began teaching composition at the Berlin Musikhochschule in 1927 but took leave in 1935. He resigned in 1937 after the Nazi government banned his music. Hindemith moved to Switzerland but after several visits to the United States, he accepted a position at Yale in 1940 and became an American citizen in 1946. After the end of World War II, he began accepting invitations to travel and eventually settled back in Switzerland in 1953.[26]

Konzertmusik fur Blasorchester, Opus 41 was written for the 1926 Donaueschingen Contemporary Music Festival and premiered on July 24, 1926. One of the themes for the festival was military music, and Hindemith composed this work specifically for military band. The movements are:

    1. Konzertante Ouvertüre
    2. Sechs Variatione über das Lied “Prinz Eugen, der edle Ritter”
    3. Marsch[27]

1926 – Drei Lustige Märsche (Three Merry Marches) Ernst Krenek

Austrian composer Ernst Krenek (1900-1991) began learning piano at six and began composing short pieces soon after. He began studying composition with Franz Schrenker in 1916 at the Vienna Academy of Music. In 1921, he moved to Berlin to continue studying with Schrenker. After returning to Vienna in 1928, he kindled a friendship with Alban Berg and Anton Webern and learned how to use the 12-tone technique. Krenek relocated to the United States in 1938 and became an American citizen in 1945.[28]

Drei Lustige Märsche, or Three Merry Marches, was written for the 1926 Donaueschingen Contemporary Music Festival and premiered on July 26, 1926. The composition is harmonically challenging and considered an experiment in tonality when considering the typical military march. Three Merry Marches is scored for flute, oboe, Eb clarinet, two Bb clarinets, two trumpets, two horns, trombone, tuba, and percussion.. The three marches include:

    1. March I – Overture
    2. 2. March II – Idyll            
    3. March III – Buffo[29]

1928 – An Original Suite Gordon Jacob

Gordon Jacob (1895-1984) was born south of London and began learning piano at eight. He was composing within a year, and by the time he was thirteen, he had begun writing for orchestra. He attended the Royal College of Music after serving in the British Army during World War I. He studied composition with Charles Villiers Stanford and Ralph Vaughan Williams. He was awarded the Arthur Sullivan Prize for Composition for his William Byrd Suite. The William Byrd Suite was originally scored for orchestra in 1923 and was rewritten for military band in 1924 upon the request of conductor Adrian Boult. After graduating from the Royal College of Music in 1924, Jacob immediately accepted a faculty position and taught composition, orchestration, theory, and conducting for the next forty years.[30]

Jacob’s An Original Suite was published in 1928, and is his first original work for wind band. It is generally presumed that the word “original” is meant to distinguish the work from the bulk of transcriptions that typically made up the repertoire for bands at the time. This suite is written in three movements:

  1. March
  2. 2. Intermezzo
  3. Finale[31]

Two other important chamber pieces for winds written by Jacob include Old Wine in New Bottles (1958) and More Old Wine in New Bottles (1978).

1928 – Little Threepenny Music Kurt Weill

German composer Kurt Weill (1900-1950) was born in Dessau, Germany, and was the son of a synagogue cantor and amateur pianist. He and his siblings were taught music at an early age, and Weill began showing interest in composition as a young teenager. In 1918, he began composition studies with Engelbert Humperdinck at the Berlin Musikhochschule, where he worked as an assistant opera coach. However, his studies were cut short due to financial hardship in the summer of 1919. From 1921-1923 he studied with Ferruccio Busoni at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. In 1926, he married Lotte Lenya, who would go on to perform in Weill’s Threepenny Opera and other musicals. As the Nazi party began to gain power in Germany, Weill was accused of “cheapening German art” because of his Jewish heritage, and he and his wife migrated to the United States in 1935.[32]

The Threepenny Opera premiered in Berlin on August 31, 1928, and is based on John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera, written in 1727. Otto Klemperer commissioned Weill to write a suite, and Little Threepenny Music premiered on February 7, 1929. Weill retained the wind pit orchestra instrumentation and included banjo, guitar, and an expanded percussion. The suite contains 8 of the 21 pieces from the opera, and the movements are:

    1. Overture
    2. Ballad of Mack the Knife
    3. The Instead-of Song
    4. The Ballad of the Easy Life
    5. Polly’s Song
    6. Tango-Ballad
    7. Cannon Song           
    8. Threepenny Finale[33]

1931 – Hammersmith Gustav Holst

On December 3, 1927, the British Broadcasting Corporation requested that Holst write a one-movement piece for military that would last between twelve and fifteen minutes. Holst had not written a piece for the band since his suites and requested to create a “warm-up” arrangement first. The BBC agreed and paid him 25 pounds for his arrangement of Bach’s Fugue a la Gigue in 1928. In addition to the Bach fugue, he also worked on “Marching Song” from Two Songs without Words and an unfinished military band version of A Moorside Suite.[34] Although Holst began working on Hammersmith in 1928, he struggled with writer’s block and did not complete it until 1931. The composition premiered on November 25, 1931, but not in its original band version. Adrian Boult, the director of music for the BBC, offered to perform the work with the BBC orchestra, and Holst decided to send both the band score and his orchestra transcription.[35]

In 1932 Holst accepted an invitation to lecture at Harvard for six months. While he was in the United States, Edwin Franko Goldman invited him to conduct the premiere of

Hammersmith at the American Bandmaster’s Association convention in Washington, D.C. The military band version finally received its premiere on April 17, 1932, by the United States Marine Band, with Captain Taylor Branson conducting. Unfortunately, due to illness, Holst was unable to attend.[36]

Hammersmith: Prelude and Scherzo takes its name from the London Borough of Hammersmith, about four miles west of the city center. His daughter, Imogen Holst, had this to say regarding the piece:

Hammersmith was not programme music. It was the outcoming of long years of familiarity with the changing crowds and the changing river. Those Saturday night crowds, who were always good-natured even when they were being pushed off the pavement into the middle of traffic. And the stall-holders in that narrow lane behind Broadway, with their unexpected assortment of goods lit up by brilliant flares. And the large woman at the fruit show who always called him “dearie” when he bought oranges for his Sunday picnics at St. Paul’s. As for the river, he had known it since he was a student, when he had walked up and down outside William Morris’ house, discussing Ibsen with young socialists.[37]

1937 – Lincolnshire Posy Percy Grainger

Lincolnshire Posy was commissioned by the American Bandmasters Association and premiered at their annual convention in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 1937.[38] Grainger conducted the premiere with the Pabst Blue Ribbon Workers’ Band. The piece consists of six movements and contains folk songs that Grainger collected by phonograph from 1905-1906, the same kind of recording device used by Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály in their own research. Grainger’s intention in creating the piece was to capture not just the essence of the folksongs themselves, but also the character of the original singers who had performed them.[39] Six songs make up this bunch of “musical wildflowers,” and the movements include:

    1. Lisbon
    2. Horkstow Grange
    3. Rufford Park Poachers
    4. The Brisk Young Sailor
    5. Lord Melbourne
    6. The Lost Lady Found

Frederick Fennell published a revised edition of the score in 1987.

  1. Michael Votta, ed., The Wind Band and Its Repertoire: Two Decades of Research as Published in the College Band Directors National Association Journal (Miami, FL: Warner Bros., 2003). 144.
  2. Frank L. Battisti, The New Winds of Change: The Evolution of the Contemporary American Wind Band/Ensemble and Its Music (Delray Beach, FL: Meredith Music Publications, 2018).37.
  3. Michael Votta, ed., The Wind Band and Its Repertoire. 145.
  4. Frank L. Battisti, The New Winds of Change. 50.
  5. Jennifer Scott, “History,” American Bandmasters Association, accessed December 23, 2022, http://www.americanbandmasters.org/history/.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Frank L. Battisti, The New Winds of Change. 61.
  8. Stephen Walsh, "Stravinsky, Igor." Grove Music Online. 2001; Accessed 19 Dec. 2022. https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.lib-e2.lib.ttu.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000052818.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Eric Walter White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1979). 264-265.
  11. Ibid. 266-267.
  12. Ibid. 291-292.
  13. Ibid. 297-298.
  14. Ibid. 308-309.
  15. Ibid. 309.
  16. Ibid. 313.
  17. Paul Griffiths, "Varèse, Edgard [Edgar]." Grove Music Online.2001; Accessed 19 Dec. 2022. https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.lib-e2.lib.ttu.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000029042.
  18. Nikk Pilato, “Octandre,” Wind Repertory Project, accessed December 19, 2022, https://www.windrep.org/Octandre.
  19. Jeremy Drake, "Milhaud, Darius." Grove Music Online. 2001; Accessed 19 Dec. 2022. https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.lib-e2.lib.ttu.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000018674.
  20. Robert Ward Miller, Darius Milhaud's "La Création Du Monde": The Conductor's Guide to Performance (Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, 2011). 20.
  21. Norman E. Smith, Program Notes for Band (Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, 2002). 604-605.
  22. Larry Blocher et al., Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, vol. 3 (Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, Inc., 2000). 468-469.
  23. Ibid. 472-472.
  24. Douglas Jarman, "Berg, Alban." Grove Music Online. 2001; Accessed 20 Dec. 2022. https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.lib-e2.lib.ttu.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000002767.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Giselher Schubert,"Hindemith, Paul." Grove Music Online.2001; Accessed 20 Dec. 2022. https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.lib-e2.lib.ttu.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000013053.
  27. Nikk Pilato, “Konzertmusik Fur Blasorchester, Opus 41,” Wind Repertory Project, accessed December 20, 2022, https://www.windrep.org/Konzertmusik_fur_Blasorchester,_Opus_41.
  28. Norman E. Smith, Program Notes for Band. 359-360.
  29. Ibid. 360.
  30. Larry Blocher et al., Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, vol. 3. 783-785.
  31. Norman E. Smith, Program Notes for Band. 321. 
  32. Ibid. 628.
  33. Ibid. 629.
  34. Jon C. Mitchell, From Kneller Hall to Hammersmith: The Band Works of Gustav Holst (Tutzig: Schneider, 1990), 107-122.
  35. Ibid. 119.
  36. Ibid. 142-146.
  37. Imogen Holst, Gustav Holst: A Biography (2nd ed., London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 144.
  38. Frank L. Battisti, The New Winds of Change. 28.
  39. Larry Blocher et al., Teaching Music Through Performance in Band. 841.


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